Castlereagh

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  1. Workspace Pricing
  2. Robert Stewart, vizconde de Castlereagh
  3. Election Results - Lisburn Castlereagh
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Grazing accounts for 63 per cent of land use, while dryland cropping and horticulture account for 20 per cent. Local water utilities are also an important water user, especially in the upper catchment. Town water supply accounts for 10 per cent of all surface water use and 43 per cent of groundwater use in the catchment. The Castlereagh is an unregulated river and has no major storages. Stream flows are highly variable and the river's sandy bed is often dry.

Surface water in the river is highly connected to alluvial aquifers along the river bed. These aquifers are an important source of groundwater. Sharing water fairly between competing water users and the environment, within the extraction limits set by the Murray-Darling Basin Cap, is a key water management issue. Water sharing plans within the catchment seek to address this issue by setting long-term rules on how water can be accessed, used and traded. There are very few wetlands in the Castlereagh catchment. However, floodplain, woodlands and shallow wetland complexes occur on some of the effluents in the lower catchment.

Goonoo State Conservation Area south-east of Gilgandra has important biodiversity values. EOS is a 3D imaging Enter your suburb to get started. I'm looking for: Service. Our locations nearest to are: Finding nearest locations Search again See all locations. Toggle navigation. Providing quality caring and efficient diagnostic imaging services. Our Services. Embracing technology for fast effective and accurate diagnostics. The following ten years saw five European Congresses where disputes were resolved with a diminishing degree of effectiveness.

Finally, by , the whole system had collapsed because of the irreconcilable differences of opinion among Britain, Austria, and Russia, and because of the lack of support for the Congress system in British public opinion. The Holy Alliance , which Castlereagh opposed, lingered a little longer. The order created by the Congress of Vienna was a mood that lasted much longer and worked to prevent major European wars until the First World War in Some scholars and historians have seen the Congress system as a forerunner of the modern collective security , international unity, and cooperative agreements of NATO , the EU, the League of Nations , and the United Nations.

In the years to , Castlereagh continued to manage Britain's foreign policy, generally pursuing a policy of continental engagement uncharacteristic of British foreign policy in the nineteenth century. Castlereagh was not an effective public speaker and his diplomatic presentation style was at times abstruse. Abolitionist opinion in Britain was strong enough in to abolish the slave trade in all British possessions-- although slavery itself persisted in the colonies until Castlereagh switched his position and became a strong supporter of the movement.

Britain arranged treaties with Portugal, Sweden and Denmark, , whereby they agreed to restrict their trading. These were preliminary to the Congress of Vienna negotiations that Castlereagh dominated and which resulted in a general declaration condemning the slave trade. As Foreign Minister, Castlereagh cooperated with senior officials to use the Royal Navy to detect and capture slave ships; the freed slaves were sent to freedom in a new British colony of Sierra Leone. He used diplomacy to make search and seize agreements with all the government whose ships were trading.

There was serious friction with the United States, where the southern slave interest was politically powerful. Washington recoiled at British policing of the high seas. Spain, France and Portugal also relied on the international slave trade to supply their colonial plantations. As more and more diplomatic arrangements were made by Castlereagh, the owners of slave ships started flying false flags of nations that had not agreed, especially the United States.

It was illegal under American law for American ships to engage in the slave trade, but the idea of Britain enforcing American laws was unacceptable to Washington. Lord Palmerston continued the Castlereagh policies. Eventually, in in , an arrangement was reached between London and Washington.

With the arrival of a staunchly anti-slavery government in Washington in , the Atlantic slave trade was doomed. In the long run, Castlereagh's strategy on how to stifle the trade proved successful. In May Castlereagh circulated to high officials a major state paper that set the main British policy for the rest of the century. Temperley and Penson call it, "the most famous State Paper in British history and the one of the widest ultimate consequences.

He argued that the purpose of the Quadruple Alliance was to contain France and put down revolutions. But the Spanish revolt did not threaten European peace nor any of the great powers. Castlereagh said that an actual practice the powers would seldom be able to agree on concerted action, and he pointed out that British public opinion would not support interventions.


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He admitted that individual states could indeed intervene in affairs in their recognized sphere of interest, such as Austria's intervention in Italy. Despite his contributions to the defeat of Napoleon and restoration of peace, Castlereagh became extremely unpopular at home. He was attacked for his construction of a peace that gave a free hand to reactionary governments on the Continent to suppress dissent. He was also condemned for his association with repressive measures of the Home Secretary , Lord Sidmouth the former Prime Minister Addington.

He had to support the widely reviled measures taken by Sidmouth and the others, including the infamous Six Acts , to remain in cabinet and continue his diplomatic work. For these reasons, Castlereagh appears with other members of Lord Liverpool's Cabinet in Shelley 's poem The Masque of Anarchy , which was inspired by, and heavily critical of, the Peterloo Massacre :.


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  • After the death of his father in , Castlereagh became the 2nd Marquess of Londonderry. As a non-representative Irish peer, Londonderry was eligible to sit in the House of Commons though he had to leave his Irish seat and instead be elected to an English seat. In , he began to suffer from a form of paranoia or a nervous breakdown.

    He was severely overworked with both his responsibilities in leading the government in the House and the never-ending diplomacy required to manage conflicts among the other major powers. Towards the end of his life there are increasing reports, both contemporaneous and in later memoirs, of exceptionally powerful rages and sudden bouts of uncharacteristic forgetfulness.

    He surprised his friends by admitting his belief in ghosts and other supernatural beings, in particular the "radiant boy", a figure which emerges from fire and is supposed to foretell death, which he claimed he had seen as a young man in Ireland. At a 9 August meeting with the King, Castlereagh was distracted, said he was being mysteriously watched by a servant, and remarked, "I am accused of the same crime as the Bishop of Clogher. It remains unclear whether there was some sort of extortion attempt, and if so, whether such attempt represented a real threat of exposure, or whether the purported blackmail was a symptom of paranoia.

    His friends and family were alarmed and hid his razor. On 12 August, Castlereagh managed in the three to four minutes he was left alone to find a small knife with which he cut his own throat. A retrospective speculative diagnosis has linked various instances of at the time little explained illness to syphilis , possibly contracted at Cambridge.

    Stewart's undergraduate studies were interrupted by a mysterious illness first apparent during the closing months of , and which kept him away from Cambridge through the summer of Later, there were unexplained illnesses in and , the first described by a contemporary as "brain fever" which would be consistent with syphilitic meningitis. An inquest concluded that the act had been committed while insane, avoiding the harsh strictures of a felo de se verdict.

    His funeral on 20 August was greeted with jeering and insults along the processional route, although not to the level of unanimity projected in the radical press. A funeral monument was not erected until by his half-brother and successor, Charles Stewart Vane, 3rd Marquess of Londonderry. Some time after Castlereagh's death, Lord Byron wrote a savage quip about his grave:. And yet, some of Castlereagh's political opponents were gracious in their epigrams. Henry Brougham , a Whig politician and later the Lord Chancellor , who had battled frequently with Castlereagh, once almost to the point of calling him out, and had denigrated his skills as Leader, [33] wrote in the week following Castlereagh's death: [34].

    Carting Manure to Castlereagh

    Modern historians stress the success of Castlereagh'a career in spite of the hatred and ignominy he suffered. Trevelyan contrasts his positive achievements and his pitiful failures. For example, in diplomatic historians recommended his wise policies of — to the British delegation to the Paris peace conferences that ended the First World War.

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    Historian Charles Webster underscores the paradox:. There probably never was a statesman whose ideas were so right and whose attitude to public opinion was so wrong. Such disparity between the grasp of ends and the understanding of means amounts to a failure in statesmanship. Robert Stewart was styled as follows: [4] [37] [38] [39].

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    Robert Stewart, vizconde de Castlereagh

    Cambridge University Press. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Most Honourable. Spencer Perceval The Earl of Liverpool. Henry Addington William Pitt the Younger. Whig — Tory — See also: Cornwallis in Ireland. The estates included the demesne land of Mount Pleasant, later Mount Stewart , which became the family seat of the Londonderrys see Leigh, Castlereagh , p. Much of the Stewart family wealth was based on the estates which came into the family through the Cowan inheritance, which put the family squarely in the landed gentry class of Ulster Presbyterians whose ancestors first arrived in Ireland during the Plantation of Ulster.

    See "The Cowan Inheritance". Public Records Office of Northern Ireland. Archived from the original on 14 November Retrieved 6 July The elder Stewart, who had been raised to the Irish peerage the previous year and was thereby ineligible, persuaded his son to stand for the seat. His son was backed, as he had been, by Whigs and Dissenters. See Leigh, Castlereagh. Pitt's dismissal of the popular Lord Fitzwilliam in , over Fitzwilliam's aggressive support of Whig patronage and Catholic emancipation, produced outrage and rioting in Dublin.

    Castlereagh had watched the unravelling of Irish policy with deep concern and knew what sort of reaction to expect to Fitzwilliam's dismissal. But he was in no position to steer Irish policy nor could he object to the inevitable departure of Fitzwilliam, especially as the person appointed to replace Fitzwilliam was the brother of Stewart's step-mother, John Jeffreys Pratt , who had recently succeed as 2nd Earl Camden.

    See Leigh, Castlereagh , Ch.

    Election Results - Lisburn Castlereagh

    He could not continue to hold both Irish office and the seat in Westminster for Orford, which he therefore resigned. See Leigh, Castlereagh , Ch 4. In the Irish election of , he stood for Newtown Limavady as well as for Down. He was successful for both constituencies and chose to sit for the latter.

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    Camden pressed London to replace Pelham, recommending in his stead Castlereagh, whose performance in office was admired by those in London concerned with Irish policy. But as an example of the perverse prejudices of the era, Castlereagh, who might have been especially competent in this delicate and demanding office because he was an Irishman, was also ineligible to represent the Crown in Ireland because he was an Irishman, even though this Irishman was grandson of an English Marquess, great-grandson of an English Duke and son-in-law of an English Earl.

    But it was only in November , after the Rebellion had been put down that, in response to imperious demands from the next influential Lord Lieutenant, Marquess Cornwallis , Castlereagh was given the permanent office, and for the first time the Chief Secretary for Ireland was an Irishman. The next month, Castlereagh was admitted to the King's Privy Council. Prior to the Right to Burial Act of , a suicide was denied a Christian burial and, until the Abolition of Forfeiture Act of , his property was forfeited to the Crown.