Organizational Accidents Revisited (2nd Edition)
Despite its quasi-biblical title, the book is dark, bitter, "a manifesto of disillusionment", according to biographer Martin Stannard. On 29 September , Waugh was received into the Catholic Church. This shocked his family and surprised some of his friends, but he had contemplated the step for some time. On 22 December , Waugh wrote: "Claud and I took Audrey to supper and sat up until 7 in the morning arguing about the Roman Church". In , Waugh explained that his conversion followed his realisation that life was "unintelligible and unendurable without God".
On 10 October , Waugh, representing several newspapers, departed for Abyssinia to cover the coronation of Haile Selassie. He reported the event as "an elaborate propaganda effort" to convince the world that Abyssinia was a civilised nation which concealed the fact that the emperor had achieved power through barbarous means. He travelled on via several staging-posts to Boa Vista in Brazil, and then took a convoluted overland journey back to Georgetown. Back from South America, Waugh faced accusations of obscenity and blasphemy from the Catholic journal The Tablet , which objected to passages in Black Mischief.
He defended himself in an open letter to the Archbishop of Westminster , Cardinal Francis Bourne ,  which remained unpublished until In the summer of , he went on an expedition to Spitsbergen in the Arctic , an experience he did not enjoy and of which he made minimal literary use. The book, published in , caused controversy by its forthright pro-Catholic, anti- Protestant stance but brought its writer the Hawthornden Prize.
Waugh, on the basis of his earlier visit, considered Abyssinia "a savage place which Mussolini was doing well to tame" according to his fellow reporter, William Deedes. Waugh had known Hugh Patrick Lygon at Oxford; now he was introduced to the girls and their country house, Madresfield Court , which became the closest that he had to a home during his years of wandering.
When the cruise ended Waugh was invited to stay at the Herbert family's villa in Portofino , where he first met Gabriel's year-old sister, Laura. On his conversion, Waugh had accepted that he would be unable to remarry while Evelyn Gardner was alive. However, he wanted a wife and children, and in October , he began proceedings for the annulment of the marriage on the grounds of "lack of real consent".
The case was heard by an ecclesiastical tribunal in London, but a delay in the submission of the papers to Rome meant that the annulment was not granted until 4 July As a wedding present the bride's grandmother bought the couple Piers Court, a country house near Stinchcombe in Gloucestershire. Their first child, a daughter, Maria Teresa, was born on 9 March and a son, Auberon Alexander , on 17 November In the book he spelled out clearly his conservative credo; he later described the book as dealing "little with travel and much with political questions". Waugh left Piers Court on 1 September , at the outbreak of the Second World War and moved his young family to Pixton Park in Somerset , the Herbert family's country seat, while he sought military employment.
Waugh's daily training routine left him with "so stiff a spine that he found it painful even to pick up a pen". Operation Menace failed, hampered by fog and misinformation about the extent of the town's defences, and the British forces withdrew on 26 September. In November , Waugh was posted to a commando unit, and, after further training, became a member of " Layforce ", under Colonel later Brigadier Robert Laycock.
Waugh's elation at his transfer soon descended into disillusion as he failed to find opportunities for active service. The death of his father, on 26 June , and the need to deal with family affairs prevented him from departing with his brigade for North Africa as part of Operation Husky 9 July — 17 August , the Allied invasion of Sicily. Recovering at Windsor, he applied for three months' unpaid leave to write the novel that had been forming in his mind. His request was granted and, on 31 January , he departed for Chagford , Devon, where he could work in seclusion.
Waugh managed to extend his leave until June Soon after his return to duty he was recruited by Randolph Churchill to serve in a military mission to Yugoslavia , and, early in July, flew with Churchill from Bari , Italy, to the Croatian island of Vis. There, they met Marshal Tito , the Communist leader of the Partisans , who was leading the guerrilla fight against the occupying Axis forces with Allied support. The mission eventually arrived at Topusko , where it established itself in a deserted farmhouse. The group's liaison duties, between the British Army and the Communist Partisans, were light.
Waugh had little sympathy with the Communist-led Partisans and despised Tito. His chief interest became the welfare of the Catholic Church in Croatia, which, he believed, had suffered at the hands of the Serbian Orthodox Church and would fare worse when the Communists took control. After spells in Dubrovnik and Rome, Waugh returned to London on 15 March to present his report, which the Foreign Office suppressed to maintain good relations with Tito, now the leader of communist Yugoslavia.
Brideshead Revisited was published in London in May He now saw little difference in morality between the war's combatants and later described it as "a sweaty tug-of-war between teams of indistinguishable louts". In September , after he was released by the army, he returned to Piers Court with his family another daughter, Harriet, had been born at Pixton in  but spent much of the next seven years either in London, or travelling.
In March , he visited the Nuremberg trials , and later that year, he was in Spain for a celebration of the th anniversary of the death of Francisco de Vitoria , said to be the founder of international law. The project collapsed, but Waugh used his time in Hollywood to visit the Forest Lawn cemetery , which provided the basis for his satire of American perspectives on death, The Loved One. In between his journeys, Waugh worked intermittently on Helena , a long-planned novel about the discoverer of the True Cross that was "far the best book I have ever written or ever will write".
Its success with the public was limited, but it was, his daughter Harriet later said, "the only one of his books that he ever cared to read aloud". In Waugh published Men at Arms , the first of his semi-autobiographical war trilogy in which he depicted many of his personal experiences and encounters from the early stages of the war.
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From onwards, Waugh became an avid collector of objects, particularly Victorian paintings and furniture. He filled Piers Court with his acquisitions, often from London's Portobello Market and from house clearance sales. Waugh also began, from , to write knowledgeable reviews and articles on the subject of painting. By , Waugh's popularity as a writer was declining. He was perceived as out of step with the Zeitgeist , and the large fees he demanded were no longer easily available.
Partly because of his dependency on drugs, his health was steadily deteriorating. Early in , Waugh's doctors, concerned by his physical deterioration, advised a change of scene. On 29 January, he took a ship bound for Ceylon , hoping that he would be able to finish his novel. Within a few days, he was writing home complaining of "other passengers whispering about me" and of hearing voices, including that of his recent BBC interlocutor , Stephen Black. He left the ship in Egypt and flew on to Colombo , but, he wrote to Laura, the voices followed him. In fact, Waugh made his own way back, now believing that he was being possessed by devils.
A brief medical examination indicated that Waugh was suffering from bromide poisoning from his drugs regimen. When his medication was changed, the voices and the other hallucinations quickly disappeared. The experience was fictionalised a few years later, in The Ordeal of Gilbert Pinfold In , Edwin Newman made a short film about Waugh. In the course of it, Newman learned that Waugh hated the modern world and wished that he had been born two or three centuries sooner.
Waugh disliked modern methods of transportation or communication, refused to drive or use the telephone, and wrote with an old-fashioned dip pen. He also expressed the views that American news reporters could not function without frequent infusions of whisky , and that every American had been divorced at least once.
Restored to health, Waugh returned to work and finished Officers and Gentlemen. Waugh saw the pair off and wrote a wry account for The Spectator ,  but he was troubled by the incident and decided to sell Piers Court: "I felt it was polluted", he told Nancy Mitford. The paper had printed an article by Spain that suggested that the sales of Waugh's books were much lower than they were and that his worth, as a journalist, was low.
Gilbert Pinfold was published in the summer of , "my barmy book", Waugh called it. Research and writing extended over two years during which Waugh did little other work, delaying the third volume of his war trilogy. In June , his son Auberon was severely wounded in a shooting accident while serving with the army in Cyprus. Waugh remained detached; he neither went to Cyprus nor immediately visited Auberon on the latter's return to Britain. The critic and literary biographer David Wykes called Waugh's sang-froid "astonishing" and the family's apparent acceptance of his behaviour even more so.
Although most of Waugh's books had sold well, and he had been well-rewarded for his journalism, his levels of expenditure meant that money problems and tax bills were a recurrent feature in his life. The interview was broadcast on 26 June ; according to his biographer Selena Hastings , Waugh restrained his instinctive hostility and coolly answered the questions put to him by Freeman, assuming what she describes as a "pose of world-weary boredom". In , Waugh was offered the honour of a CBE but declined, believing that he should have been given the superior status of a knighthood.
He enjoyed the trip but "despised" the book. The critic Cyril Connolly called it "the thinnest piece of book-making that Mr Waugh has undertaken". As he approached his sixties, Waugh was in poor health, prematurely aged, "fat, deaf, short of breath", according to Patey.
Waugh, a staunch opponent of Church reform, was particularly distressed by the replacement of the universal Latin Mass with the vernacular. We write letters to the paper. A fat lot of good that does. In , a new financial crisis arose from an apparent flaw in the terms of the "Save the Children" trust, and a large sum of back tax was being demanded.
Waugh's agent, A. Peters, negotiated a settlement with the tax authorities for a manageable amount,  but in his concern to generate funds, Waugh signed contracts to write several books, including a history of the papacy, an illustrated book on the Crusades and a second volume of autobiography.
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Third UN World conference on disaster risk reduction. Accessed 16 March UPSC Civil services. UPSC Guide. VCLL Practising reflection: reflective practises in disaster risk reduction: Short course handbook. University of Leicester, Leicester. Vickers G Human systems are different. J Appl Syst Anal 10 :3— Weick KE Enacted sensemaking in crisis situations.
Ecological variability and regionalism, of course, are characteristic features of the entire Levant, but along the western arm of the Fertile Crescent, one natural feature that is particularly dominant is the long spiny ridges of the Lebanese highland range.
Perhaps nothing is more indicative of its prominence than a single. Characteristic of the former System, which is the principal focus of our interest, are the rugged slopes lining the Biqa'. Irrigated garden vegetables, more because of water limitations than marketability, generally formed the smal- led crop. By far the most important, therefore, are the fields planted in vineyards, olives and other horticultural crops.
Orchard cultivation, in other words, provides the mainstay of terrace farming. Like the terrace themselves, both grape and olive require large investments in capital, time and labor, the first to build and repair, the second to train and nurse, and the third to plant and wait. Both in terms of soil formations and long term gains, in other words, terrace farming and monoculture cashcropping are mutually conducive If highland terrace farming encourages orchard cultivation, it also sustains large, immobile lineages of highly articulated, closed communities.
At the household level, small plots of sequentially maturing crops are amenable enough to the limi- ted labor output of nuclear households, and broad enough for them to be relative- ly self-sufficient. Since capital accumulation involved the conversion of waste slopes into workable assets, such a system favored successi-. In short, terrace farming pro- moted the formation of small freeholders and tenant farmers, who formed large, generationally tiered social pyramids with fixed, stable, social relationships Such, in any case, was the situation in the last few centuries under the Ottoman and later European and local administrations, when two principal ethnie groups -the Druzes and the Maronites - dominated two large enclaves of the landscape.
But it was not always so. Ecological Change and Roman Colonization. How the human assault on the highland terrain initially emerged is known only in its broadest outlines, but some indication of the first establishment of efficient terrace farming Systems can be derived from the results of intensive archaeologi- cal surveys in the Biqa' Until the later centuries of the lst millennium B.
Although occupied but to a great extent neglected under the Ptolemies and their rivais the Seleucids except as a setting for the Syrian wars , it was the allocation of the central Biqa' to the Berytos colo-. The pattern that crystallized was particularly striking for its reversai of previous land use trends. Apart from a spectacular rise in seulement density, which more than doubled the Bronze Age maximum, the focus of settlement lay precisely in areas that had previously been only sparsely settled, on the margins and hillslo- pes of the valley This expansion into hitherto virgin habitats is ail the more re- markable for its rapidity.
It is this later movement on the valley floor that underlines the distinctive cha- racter of the rapid, arduous movement upslope. It is in this context of primarily public funding, aimed presumably at increasing agricultural output and revenues, that the tortuous labor intensive task of carving minute terrace plots on the highlands must be seen, largely as a product of nume- rous small-scale efforts by small farmers acting in concert. In Africa, for instance, iugera was considered normal But a second, interrelated motive may be indicated by the lowland expansion in the 3rd and 4th centuries.
The Syrian limes System was actually a broad band of military settlements aimed toward the protection of the local commercial routes and the agricultural zones, at the heart of which was a network of roads that permitted quick troop movements and caravan passage between the cities Although little is known of their administration, this segment was proba- bly organized around Emesa, Laodicea ad Libanum and Heliopolis in the north.
The most conspicuous feature of the northern cluster was a large but late fort near Joussiye overlooking the Homs plain. Far- ther south, a number of small sites on the Antilebanon guarded the spring oases and pastoralist routes near Labwe and Baalbek, while in the area of the Berytos colony, three clusters of small forts, observation posts and fortified farms or camps controlled the three passes leading to Damascus.
By later Roman times, the spread of Christianity among the local populations can be detec- ted not only at Baalbek and other urban centers, but also from dedicatory inscriptions in the highlands Alongside this propagation of the Christian faith, there was a clear survival of the Aramaic language as seen in the persistence of topo- nyms today The cultural and political basis was to follow. Ethnic Change and the Mamluk State. Later litera-. According to Maronite tradition, the first settlers were Mardaite groups, possibly transplanted by Heraclius from northern Syria to protect the southern flank of the Byzantine empire Certainly by the 8th century, Copts from Egypt and Nes- torians from Kurdistan and Mesopotamia were brought in as craftsmen for the Umayyad construction at Anjar By the 9th century, tradition also suggests that later major families - e.
Persians are reported at Baalbek by Ya'ku- bi, while. Certainly by the llth century, Druzes and Shi'a Metwalis Twelvers were significant components of the population extending from the Biqa' to the Wadi et-Teim and southern Lebanon, perhaps encouraged by Fatimid rule Inter- spersed among them were smaller groups of Ismailis and Nusayris, who were active participants in the later border wars between the Franks and the Burids of Da- mascus In this context of alter- nating Turkish, Frankish, Burid and Ayyubid influences, one may initially percei- ve the existence of group boundaries among the presumed colonizing communi- ties, as a resuit of interaction among neighbors with rival political interests.
But whether this can be formulated into the coalescence or maintenance of community boundaries, the next stage of organization and political mobilization is more clearly discerned under Mamluk domination. For it is not until this period that indigenous sources shed a narrow but brightly illuminated beam on the main features of what by then were distinct sectarian enclaves. Certainly Duwayhi d. One might well wonder, therefore, at the historical conditions that provided the setting for the works of ibn al-Qila'i d.
One possible suggestion is that this was not solely an accident of history, but indeed was a reflection of crucial social forces at work. By the 14th century, sou- thern Syria had already been encapsulated within successive empires. This expansion, however, is one of the few similarities between the two periods. More notable are the contrasts. In the southern part of the valley, a thorough drainage of the marshes by a System of small canals leading directly into the main Litani channel permitted a virtual doubling of settlement.
As AbdFida records, this drainage led to the founding of over twenty villages, the introduction of irrigated cash crops and the beginnings of a timber industry In the central part of the valley, there was a reversai of the emphasis on the valley floor towards the alluvial fans, while in the north, many of the qanats and dams built in the Roman period were rebuilt or repaired.
The textile industry achieved a degree of prominence by producing woolen and cotton garments, an especially fine linen cloth, and blankets and silk from partly imported raw materials